Diacritics have no effect on the primary alphabetical order. Most often, it indicates the historical deletion of an adjacent letter usually an s or a vowel: It has also come to be used to distinguish homophones: Since the orthographic changes, the circumflex on most i's and u's may be dropped when it does not serve to distinguish homophones:
The Cockney Alphabet
alphabet | Definition, History, & Facts | alterna180.com
Greek diacritics In the polytonic orthography traditionally used for ancient Greek, the stressed vowel of each word carries one of three accent marks: These signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent , and thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech ever since. In addition to the accent marks, every word-initial vowel must carry either of two so-called "breathing marks": This system of diacritics was first developed by the scholar Aristophanes of Byzantium c.
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Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest. While pre-alphabetic systems of writing in the Old World became steadily more phonetic, they were still exceedingly cumbersome, and the syllabic systems that gradually replaced them… Theories of the origin of the alphabet The evolution of the alphabet involved two important achievements. The first was the step taken by a group of Semitic-speaking people, perhaps the Phoenicians, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean between and bce.