This oddity of locution -- black people calling their magical practice hoodoo and white people calling it Voodoo, as if by doing so they could convince black folks that rootwork is a West African or Haitian religion -- is clearly noted in Zora Neale Hurston's important book on the subject, "Mules and Men," published in Hurston was an African American folklorist with a fine ear for dialect who also wrote a book on Haitian Voodoo "Tell My Horse" , so she spoke with authority when she referred to her subject as "Hoodoo, or Voodoo, as it is pronounced by the whites. Now, it could be argued that Hurston was from Florida and that she preferred the word hoodoo to Voodoo, even though the latter was the more common term in New Orleans -- but such an idea can definitely be countered by referring to an interview that Ferdinand "Jelly Roll" Morton, an African American Creole native of New Orleans and a famous jazz musician in his own right gave to the folklorist and musicologist Alan Lomax of the Library of Congress in Morton, who was quite conscious of the recording of the interview and its historical importance, went out of his way to explain many local idioms and turns of speech to Lomax, who was a white man basically ignorant of such matters.
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Definition[ edit ] Much of modern African philosophy has been concerned with defining the ethnophilosophical parameters of African philosophy and identifying what differentiates it from other philosophical traditions. Gade argues that the ethnophilosophical approach to African philosophy as a static group property is highly problematic. His research on ubuntu presents an alternative collective discourse on African philosophy "collective" in the sense that it does not focus on any individual in particular that takes differences, historical developments, and social contexts seriously. The Nigerian philosopher Uzodinma Nwala, prior to his employment to teach at UNN, said that there was no African philosophy available as a course of study in universities. Nothing like African philosophy existed anywhere. In fact, many years after the introduction of the courses, there still remained arguments among experts, whether there was really African Philosophy".
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The Old Straight Track The concept of "ley lines" originated with Alfred Watkins in his books Early British Trackways and The Old Straight Track, though Watkins also drew on earlier ideas about alignments; in particular he cited the work of the English astronomer Norman Lockyer , who argued that ancient alignments might be oriented to sunrise and sunset at solstices. Attracted by the nearby archaeological investigation of a Roman camp, he stopped his car to compare the landscape on either side of the road with the marked features on his much used map. While gazing at the scene around him and consulting the map, he saw, in the words of his son, "like a chain of fairy lights" a series of straight alignments of various ancient features, such as standing stones, wayside crosses, causeways , hill forts, and ancient churches on mounds. He subsequently coined the term "ley" at least partly because the lines passed through places whose names contained the syllable ley, stating that philologists defined the word spelled also as lay, lea, lee, or leigh differently, but had misinterpreted it. The ancient surveyors who supposedly made the lines were given the name " dodmen ".
Bibliography of Sources for Further Study An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. The Celtic people have mystified anthropologists and historians for generations. They were a non literate culture whose history and literature was preserved through oral tradition. The only written records of their civilization are the texts left by classical authors, the first of which appear circa BCE. These accounts, inaccurate as they may be, are important in that they demonstrate that the Celts came into cultural contact, and sometimes competition, with the Greeks as well as the Romans.